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(1990 



1981 




"3 "3 




2000 



10-00 



Paper used for the ^rMi^^f thfts&Q$k was made available 
by the Government oHndtatrt cohcmfewl rate 



1980 
1981 



to 

"ar sroabs*a 



Sb|j6 



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3. 

tf 

^"555, g*0^ H^g 

0)^6 () 



Sl-12.19^1 -3 -3 



2 

8 



5. 

6 

7 

8 



11 
12 



229 






, sp cSStes* SFOPGO, 



(Modernism^ 
19, 20 



VI 



So^^SS^ 

co 



(1914-18), 



, 18, 19 fco-spofl^ 5*0^^57-^0, 20 

S 
1910 t 



B6[jSbS'on i ;Sotfoa3l38>^ s^s^tfg S^^ 6 17,18 



19 S5 ^^8io OsStf, 20 



Vll 



19 






a Si 



VI11 



^SGl_ 



5*0^3 53-^0 



(Romanticism) 

&* 

RS 



, 10 



(Nco-Classicism]& 
*)^oa so 
(Formalities) ^ 
^ 

1748^ 



^Rationalism^ 



i 



, 1789 a* 
^o 
location) 



(dis- 



3eS$o&, 



sj 



(Idealfsmjr^, 
i 7) 






(Freed om) n% 

(A esthetic ism)ry 






wtf 



&&|ax>(iSap t) 10) 



sSfl^S 



19 






critical realism) ^&g3eJ 33 ?5S)^^ ('Socialist 



tti 



ism 



53 



t) 68) 



1917 



53* 



xii 



co v 



53 



tf3fcS8ofoo fis^/66S ^SLiT ^^oS^o) -s? 



(RatLoiiahsrn) 17 

20 a 



^X oJb i.^^? 



) A 3 3 SJ^D^, 



*** 4- 



!: 



D-^ 



CP 



1932^* 



fciv 









20 



XV 



i^o&eo SPC&># &*a*doo 



( Surrealism ) 



1924 



ivi 

SisSo, 



Stream of consciousness 



. t). 186). 
S^ 6rp 



17-.18 



-33? : 5J 



XV11 



[ ic 
L CD 






oc Csp fco cy^ I 

0_) J _ D Oj L_ 

(Existentialism,, S5>1) 



5" 
i ^ 
rfo^doo 



!9 



XVlll 



(Formalism) 



* . 



S a-tf 

t ^ 
f pejorative term). ^ 



(Roman Jacobson) 
( Victor Shklovsky) 



^oa (With a new form comes a new con 
tent. Form thus determines content) 



Blank 



.verse 



XIX 



is 
So 



53fiosy^Co 



o 
oef* -rv 



D'53'OO'S 

^)0^ ^^00 KSo^JCPcxii ^OoS^ef 5^^, 

5Sj*^d> S)&?5 ^oS^bo 3aSS>fc$> gPofi, 53-8 



3-0$ 



S^tfeS 



(popular trend) 



ia 






.-6^0, 



8(560.) 1967. 



. 1978. 



, fc. 1967. 



O, 1972. 
. "3. o). 1977. ^06." odbesspo' l~l,-fSa5oe6 , 77 



David Craig (Ed.) 1975. Marxists on Literature. 

Penjguin B6ok's v 



(thought 
pattern) 



(Romantic tales') n s56?6j 



efi 1711 

(refined Conduct) 

tf^S (refined culture) ^ ^tfo sp&^^g 25^o& 
SS^^^ ^SSj'^^^o *"& (captivating the imagi- 

tion) ^ ^ oefo ^c^So^^oa SSSaSbtfcS ^O'eD 
/ <D o o 

?^a &S eg'o 305* *o< ^3 ^ x o^ (Imaginationj, 
(feelings) Sx)tf9_c 



^ romantic scene n ^6o^s3co c^^T 8 tfcS Musings of 
the Solitary Stroller (T* ^c^r^ (Biene) Cfir>^o ^53* 



Thomson a*&>?5 axa^b^co (Seasons') 



1797 ^ Frederick Schlegel _ 

Cogitations ^ei^^ S^^cd^. e^ *E3$3 S'o^ (Imagi-* 
nationV d'^S^o (Emotion 1 ) 






sSSj^\C& (attitudes) o, 
(originality), oS^St fcreationV j^SStf (genius') S^^g^ 









8 1797 S* 
Frederick Schlegel 



(Augubt Wilhelm) S^^oS^ ^^ ^6^ 3 X ^^ (spirit 
of the modern art) r? 



o 



(Madame Destael) 



sjo^^p 

CO 



Ballads) So 



nature 



)' ' 



S^S" (Heine] 



i /Lejenre intime) 



(^Lyrical 



^^> (return to the 



(Walter 



(Stendahl) 



on- 



(^beauty) o 



(strangeness^ 
5^) fcfioS"! Peter) 



j (sublime) 



O 



(Arthar Lovejoy) 
esffe 



(verbal sign) n* 



'SSJS' (Gnerson) 
Back ground of English Literature ^ 



(^Lilian Furst^ 

^^jcfi&83o i^So 8 ^ oXsspex) ^sdi (1 j ^<^ 5Pc5o (Individua- 
psm), (2) cs&e^sptfo (Idealism), (8) ^es^^^ So^^S 
(creative imagination), (4) ^J^ ^8 i^rS (sub- 
jective Perception of nature), (5) ?S^o<SSb i^^spgo 
(Importance of feeling], (6) ^^ ^^o spdTS'o (use of 
symbolic imagery) 

(Romantic movement) 



*' V' n, V 

- V- ^CUlSVC 



(1748) 
x> SSCT^ 
(guild system") &r6, dtfpoiSg' A-^ 8 (machine production) 



ci as n 



(Proletariat) 



>5on* 
(Superstructure) 



(1789) 



%^ (Liberty), 
(Equality), ^[srt^o (Fraternity) !_~?)o> 



0-33 



(Neo classical values) So sSg 
^c^&o, ScoSSo (Aristocratic norms 
and values) * SsSpStf 



ej 5 jr^o e^2 
1 * a 



reaction)iT 
Deserted Village, 3" Satanic Mills, 



tl> Age of Despair a," 

(HumanismV IS"> ^To^^gsp^o (Aesthe- 
ticism), S d'cS' "^3^ 53^(^0 (doctrine of freedom), )tfo 

(Atheism) 



A esthetic ism) 'v, 



SSJ 



Impressionism, Dadai^m 



(Revivalist) 



(temporal aspect) 
& &o^ 
(Adhocism) 



(Flight from Rea 
lity) i'g 



f Imagination \ 



35^ g's'&^o^ rv^, 



1910 
1940 tf& 53sS^a5*tf&o 1>Cb^ e^aoon SP^O> 1909 



(1) 
(revivalism of past) 



(Vedism) 
SS^^ofi 
reo &zr rfSso 3 tfoD-^ ^60^ tftfcSea g"^^^ (2) 



(thought complex) 



10 



sp^olb ^S 



, fieb, if, 



11 



sptfo 






cr8iSc6 e^^pS^g'Sr 8 gg 3* tf S)sSs5o 



(Atheism)^ [jSiytfo 

SS >, s5o 



No 



Sr*5 ^CToe^co, ^3^^?^ ^cr^e^ex) (thought 






g&o (1909-10)6* i^rfotf&cxooa c&p^S^ 8 |J3>oO 
ir>Sbtf SsSs^eo 5-e^ag' 



1748 e* ^oja^ S5*ab^ s)^o i)fcS'&oa ^ oiT 178 



SSO^ofl 

g ^ooi (Noble Classes) s:o5p^^i, ti%3o[& "3 
(free farmers)rfo^?^; 3 ofi 

\ ' EJ u a 



1881 S^K^S"^ Empress 
Cotton Mills SsS'SS* tfotfa <3 53 






o $ a 



1910 

X S 



IT 3* CO 



s^oi 

-^ t)L 

t^c 

co 



35 



ef 



(Handicrafts) o-^o* 
(Cottage Industries) C^CP eadb^cfeo^a s}ej*c^3 sSgSS^ 1910 

1912-1918 J 



CD CO 



14 



5*0^^ 
17S9 



wDo^ First war of Indian 
Indepea<Jance)n iS^isi 8 ^ 



1585 



1905 

19206" a^flS ^^di aotftf6SrtfgsS)o 



3 o r? ff 



) CO 



M (1909) 



Hermit 



, "3 ^) Cf&ra'^a "gS ^0 






, 






o 

>& 'o^tfS' i 
o 



consciousness 



(ugly) 

D^tf^ 3*rSj B SS^fo oasfo 23^o-ui^ 
*&> 



1797 3 s s-o. &tf&o soS*^*ff* {fo^3i^ 110 



1910 

3 eo <S 0^db sS si<3 



sio^S* ^3 aa^^ JSipiao- es&Osi ^o 

^^ 060^ 



1 7 



estftftfo 



a* 7*6^ 



(Elegies^ 



2 ) 



13 



V V v',. 

"-J-" ^ 



d6i& 



udiGO 



19 



fPhilasophical Anarchy) 



^^ (Actor), ^cJi)^b& (Hero) ^ -^a S'SD wS^o (Ego or 
Iness) r^ ^odJcr> \cfiT 8 , a^cxfroS" 8 (jSooa^S ^?& fDominent 
T) JT, ^^0^5 ^^o-j6sSjB3o esodb^a 55^^ex) (objects) && 
(The otherW sSgsSsJ8oJoefc&o&paa ^S |Jod&ft 

fThe other^ 98x_oSSa)2focfeoa 
V y ^* 



eooo c^QO sio[6^oo r^^a* ,5^o3?6 s^o^^o ^>^S (Imagina- 
tive object) 9oeb 



j* (^Pet-Actor) 
(objectW 



fc^tf 



A o^ 70 Love, p'ulobophy 



21 

spcOotfio - 



^ToStfg 



*Q2>^ ^ 

(S> 



HP ^Jo "SodS 



eo^o |jSE3dSoo 



(Intellectual & PhUosoph 



22 



rS>3s-?S!Sao 





28 



iSS 

L 



s-Sb f u 



(Mystic) 535^5 . 



feelings sSo 



^1 ^3^.Sb (Akhemy) 



(tragedy) 



-\ 

cJ 

S ^i>S)d6 



&Eg Malancholy tragedy S 
tftfsSb tf^ *>8$J A-^^g ^orv 0[Qotfcra8 



(Extinct Pessimism) [jS^a^efo S'S 
(Death wish) 



25 

je3 *-^ (Psycho-aaalysis) di^J ^ S> e 



2)3 



&( (State of nature) 



is born free but he ib found in chains every 
very 



sS So 



53*tfc (Flight frcm Reality) ^& esoeb 



53- 



27 

S'tf (Classicism^ s 



woflotf^S) 



B &cyo^ n K 

^g ?6o[o3 

;5Sa*S 



1910 &ofi iSr^^o^^ &&*& 4 

L_ 

Sa3;Nc)o-S)?6 



&> 



83^ 



28 es&SS' 3e, 






1910 &o<3 1940 



A 

d^6)o S5o 



HO 



gb2$S^ 



ae> 



1880 






^cr-ofi 



4:^o (Super structre} 

Ci \ / 



si & cS&Egd cbui^o ^Integrated movement^ 



(Neo classism) S^_r^ 

^^e,^ ^^tf ^ 

f Realism 
v 



3eu/*o 



o] ^<?c. c^o 

L 8) & o 



SO 



5P 



&33 



1934 d 
^0^50 (Economic depression') 



1940^ 



1 John B Halstead Romanticism D C Heath & 
Co Boston, 1965 

2 Lilian R Furst Romanticism Methuen & Co, 
London, 1978 



2 

, 1957 



_, 1958 
5 ?6 



, 1965 



, 1974 



7 



1913 



le & 



1967 



So 3 



, 1988 



, 1988 



, 1978 



84 



es 



tfbfc^ 



" 









35 






53* 



^3 Q^ 



8? 






88 



f^orrtf, S'Coo, 



b, s^^, 330 uS) 






88 



&DO& 



"Stfto baa ^s^n' S)faoa B CSo 



40 









S} 






42 



escXo 



& 



46 



[j6s*tfo 



.X^ 

ol - 



t)Co 






tffi^os-fio- 



44 









^&^ lisso ^txy 
, 3 o^o^^ sSfift^bo 3 &5<>o 

a_ ) (J) c__ t) 



46 es&asf 3es>to 



tf o, 



s-SS 



s;a T-OO jgo a^&Q aooofl 

o-O 



0- 



HP 






u- * 



^53*0^ 



i S 



fl 



(SosStf 



53*3, 



4) 



50 



O 



%|tci6 



> \ 

cJ - s 



O 



61 



irfotffio e^^ 

L. M 



&3 D ( 'Y>tfo'5b 



53 



^5 3^5 



CD CO 

' 5-00 



69 



Q 



5*tfe3 



54 



t 

O& 

^ 

O cu Q 

coD s>d 
n 



n EP S) 



atec-, Ijrag'oj' eso^o 

s\ 



ejpti, 



?66ej i >cxi3 sios Scpx-SP jSsij^oS HP 



gg 






S> 



fed 



67 



Scr-dib 



SB 



^7- t>tfcfiog, 



efco 



ov? 



69 



' i 



8cSfr>So 



es 

CD 






CO O 



80 



tfS) 



53 



6, 



63 



tfo fSS&tf 3 SDS'tf sStfSc&cS" 8 tfo 



a Si) ^^OK) e3rp& SSssS^ S^-\Co 

tJco 

Sfil 









64 



53 






oL i) 



33*8 



53^60 



U c 



5) 



66 



1920 



i Q 



37 



coco 



ea 



eO 



a 



ty.ST 8 - SS 



^ fotfo, 



gg 



[tfsSglaS<apfi3co 8 wo 5^ 



SP&O 






a L So ^ 






tf ? 



S3.8S 



5 



dQbr?co 



f 



oX A ^03 AS3, A 



73 



a 

sjos' 



3057*0, 



(Tribes] 



IT 






Si/d'eorr* 



74 



?So& rScjSjy.d'ec S^J^P S Qo^r^) 7^oo, 



^fj^ cS 



75 



)^ ^=D>O(> 
tftf ^Sr^S 



(formalismj ^ ^So^_85 

o&DO(3 es?o^ ^^fedi 

(1910,1930) 







^^Srr 1 * 

<"_o<2> Sioei^cei) 1930 

&c(3 



3 rf 



a|jea 



1937 



78 



o 2ri, 



o n 

o^a 






?9 



fc I 

L 



eg 



ol* 



> 

ol. 



1930 



1914 *&*, 1989 



[JS 



B30& 



80 



53-830, 



SbCf 



foofi" ej*o5 



0*^00006 



195 



(form\ 
ssol tf gb<?tfc$6 Cfti 

L fi 



1943 



1933 



O C/E8 ) 

6) 



8,3 

ss 






Sbfif 



o 



' 1923 



1936 



23^0^6 



6^)00*, 



^j* I s 



1943 



1943 



, flTg ^gbcx, 



a 



o 

-r _ lw _ ww _,-_ _^ w _ ty Ti 



84 



3eort> 












n-6 * 

^oco 
rvd'o Saotf&tfb, 



86 






esodb"! sj<5 



So - 1>A 178) 



3-3^ 



ioS 



SjS^o^Q (Refl^ction^) 



J J 



88 



19*7, 1948 



1 95 9 






sophy^S 



(Emp 



iricism 



(Logic) 
514 



^ 

Q 



3^^ (1596 . 1650) T 
fojySfts* (1632 - 1377), fcfiijf (1646 - 1716) |^sSboaoo 



90 



propositions, theorems 



T 
8X) 



;- 

CT 



fl 3 

o_ 

o 16 

3 io^wiexi 5J3 

8 



19 ? 






5 ) 5" i liclo'Sr ^p )^, 
i sp?6j, 



1859(5^ [jSefiaoa^S 'On the Origin of 
Species by Means of Natural Selection 1 ^ [tfotfo S^B 



o 

55^^- , 



92 



"isSoo 



^0^8 



', fS5o 



3S 



' ^Si o*cS 



. 



reason 



CL, 3 
*J tj -J 



80^ SS^^M S_sp5 (mental attitude) 

authonty) ^S$)^g 

w^ Jjoc^)" cT^ "^"^ (plulosoph^ 
^X ( etlvics ) 



650^0^0 



19 



oo 



~eb 



1909 



21 



96 



SfcfiSa 



c-cc 







93 



S'S), 



Sjja'eso' 



su^S. 



c, C' 



" ^oij'^b SJOM 2J 



n L. & 



100 

o) c&o& 



: if er/ ^ 



101 



a-Si TStfeS 



102 






10S 



iS 

3 L_ 

'3 



*9c&?S 



104 



tfo, & 



> 



105 



l 

L 



i^oo 



, "loijjo 
Sofl ^SsS&N ^P^P^<?O^ fcc^Ootfc 



(jS^QS, S^^SL tfo 




. Q 



Q SP 



558 



107 



?3&p n* 



108 



e. zy 

CP > 



es 



109 



53 



Q 



530^3 



10 



At^o 



(Symbolism) 



(Rimbandj 
rfo esotfcp 
^Baudelaire) 



correspondences - 



(Freud) 

Sosjsptfo [_p^ ^i& 
c (subconsciousj o^ <A c 



111 



d 



112 



"Surrealism, by its very character, cannot be 
progressive Progress belongs to the realm of realities 
It is measure of social growth, the growth of a social 
order from stature to stature It is matter for stati- 
stical or quantitative appraisement It is real, surr- 
ealism is unreal It is a device of distortion in the 
realm of art" 



'SURREALISM 1 



^Andre Bretonj, 



1981^ wS'oSS" (Apollmaire) 

(Tristan Tsaraj, 
r^c (Louis Aragon)s5oe 

^infantilism^ 

V ) 



j*&> Automatic writing <3<3 &\3o)<3 <cx>'S 
o" o^a 
positive ideas 



^o (Super-reality) 



(?) Cx, 



(Spontaneous 



humble - recording - machines 



'o^^S 

Q 



8) 



114 <3&3Jf Seorfb 



(alienation) 






foc^o^o, 



'Down with syllogisms, corolories, Q E D, 
cause and effect, the whole and the sum of its 
parts' open the gates to the dream, make room for 
automatism We are about to see a man as he is, we 
shall be whole men, 'unchained', 'delivered', 
daring at last to be aware of our desires and daring 
to fulfill them " 



SbdS 



&*To<2>3 



tforfotf* 

SooSb, 



32 






5 

6 fe^^No 1)6 
cJ 

7 

8 * 

9 sjfi 



S 

4 LOOTS' 5S$CT>tf &aoo (libido) S)QR) 



- (Inferiority 
Complex 



118 esdbSS' 3eori> 



^bocr SCPCP 



1920 



COD OS? 



Si^o 



1918 



1924 , 

' ^pcr 8 axp 



IfOO ^SosS^^o^ (jSibeoS'S Interpret- 
ation of Dreams^ 



HP 



120 



SP 



(chance\ ob]ective automatic 

SbDibS, o 
3 -?< 



sjos* 



roio ^<3 53 S>33aa, ^ a SP ?oS5o jSoSSj 



feelings 



121 






*3t) automatic text 



sjo, 



tf 



122 

* ^Totftfo 






* 5s5 

O 

tfo sStftf^tf 

(Sotp^ ?b3 ^efio5-^ CT^p&ofi (198 

Fren-h Communist 

19.8-40 o 






SJ'Q 



128 



& 8 if a 3 > L SPS^S COT 



n 

S'S) 



S^T* ^^ &>& tf&r\ 



n*^, 



- cBoa&-Sjo 



1/553 S'^ff 8 

* * 

^ ^ 



125 






5 5 



1930-50 



126 



CD 

1959-75 



1905 



3eorti> 



5630^ on- 



fe^SoS* 



j _ /"I CJ 



1933-34 



r\ 

rJ 



1960 






6 PI J 
eo L 



do 



Being and nothing less" n 



( Ex stence Precedes essence) 






(An essay on Phenomenolog 1C al 



129 
Ontology) a^sS-jftf sj-gSSorT- &>5y "Being and Nothing. 



357* 



Existentialism So 



7 sS ?6 
aoo 



1968 5SQ Existentialism So 



9) 



180 



3 ^?6o 



^^ (nothingj r? 

)o^o^ s 11 ^) es^SS 4)0^ w^tftf ss foS^o (subje- 
ctive existence) ^S)^ 



(Hell is others) ?SS) 



t Critique of Dialectical reason" 



", t?: soi^o cs5" ar ^ 

^ * Ci 

n= b'o 



131 



Scarcity) 



, 1> otfs*oo 
1975 a^ 



sSr|j^o s*& 



|s3.Q f7 ^Existential Pyscho analysis)^) 



ol __. *J 



* 138 

|j$SSc (stream of consiousness) 



:- 



4 *5P(5" 



4t Words M 

g'cr? 3eosS3ca 1^6^ S* 4fc o3 M 



Seorib 



1972 5* "fceesS," SfcCsSL&ffl*. 1975 
(18.6-76)^ " 



<Srdooot7o S^fio ^o'c^Esa'^) r?Cb ^ 

SS?*^ L_rfotfo 
is literature" 



^0(3 



e &#<?33tfo 185 



"*o"(!$S$a 66), 



S " 



) 

a' Ss^orfa oeb 



5 



1^00* 



136 



9 



es **tfS> 






3*8 



3$ 
9 



First person singular^ S'^OD 3^00 



1946 



189 



o^or? 



700 



o co 



^ 

o 



1S9 






SsSoco "fcg 



>5* 



140 



etffo 



o 

_i 

o 



(bad 
tftfoatf ^ 



sr^ol 



^o^ah 



142 



O * 



cxu' 



c3(TO v3 tfC' "'-J^^.OCULOuU^-j UXjS*v*dL/o/ 

*- S3 E5 



143 






30 



(Existential- 
istic anguish') 



(alienation) 

dfc 



144 



[jSsSoifo ^PC^ ^aao 



es 



146 



tffl 



10) 



146 



1965 



a, "la* 



ssotf 



148 ss&kg' 3oD<*b 



13 



S3oSSKi?S) ^olG^ex* S^^sStfo I Seao Ibo&'&obS), 
^<s> U ^.ci,nL o 



1980 



(1970-80) 



C s 



Middle clasb is a class of vacillation 



srtfo 



2 

8 



"7 
8 






(Inferiority Complex) 

* ^s tftfo & 



150 



Self. Alienation 



Escapism 



sc 



o 



1 >&>Sooij-& 



& zv 



Si 6 



161 



152 



Igo Sd5bS^^S Superiority 
complex ^j S 



Psycho-neurotic S & 
Insanity ^ 






fi t 



a-rio 



Establish 



Readership 



tf) '5^ Ib3 F^ crcoo S'Stfjg 



o ' 



^, Craftsmanship 



d" 



164 



8, 



Experience &, Feeling 
G^ZS "Description of the subject- matter of Psycho 
logy 1 $ Experience 



Extravcrted 
Intraverted 









IBB 



1 Simple feelings 

2 Organic feelings 
8 Activity feelings 

4 Sentimental and attitude feelings 



8^63 



*Poetry is Spontaneous overflow of powerful 
feelings' & Wordsworth SSspj^ ^6]t!)oa D rfb C A vent 
for over charged-feelmgs 1 es^ Kebel 



5 s wtfcw 



156 



S 



J Q 



167 



* Q 

>0 



SJ^^O-Art for Art Sake 



^ 'Art 
for Art Sake' ^ ^^ *?6^' 65 s^^o C^D^. ^0*0 Vw 



'Art has no raoral obli- 

gations' 9^) 53 6 |jSatfo ^^Si) *Art concerned with 
only beauty, through the Principle of Art for Art 
Sake ' ^ 



1873 * Walter Pater e5^ otf& History of the 

Renaissance e3^ S) r5fe"o a*^ 8 ^: cs'o^ Modern mani- 

CO 

festation & 



fBaumgarten) ^^^60 1750 &* Aesthetica 
Latin 8* tfao^w eJcp^S^^p CT> 

^o srcr Aesthetic movement 



153 



a8sldSjc 



iSS 



l 



. 

. .e9ofi6l SboifiB 






160 



ss co 



-3*23 



0*61 & 

L_ 



TcoDO( 



160 






53 



Lyric 



Lyric 



11) 



KOOS^O'OD ^PCT 8 53*^2)^0 



(Imagery)^ ^_^ 



Positive 



sjD 



Bco/^b 



Transpareat 



d&tfo 



Look 



i 



Liberal 



163 



u_C 
u a) 

^sp^sSDc 



,^ Force 



^OcT S'StfjJ 



Personal rr 5 sj^ 



Dostoevsky ^odp*^ 'A man always talks from his 
own ache 



,67^ 



i'o^db 



530^0 &>tfc 
1969 ff 8 



30^3"* ' 



cor 



" 



, TV^o^ca, ^00.^0(5, 



8 33% [jlSsSoa 



165 






II 






186 



12 



20 



12 Siofig SS 

12 



"1914.18 



} 

1978-19SO 



III 



- tf 



16S 



50*7 



s.g' Scac^o Sao^^^ 'Unconscious' 



fc?6 tftfoatfoSo, 

g l i e 



o^o 






0^ 



IV 



CD Q 



' ^ a.g' 



Sjos 19 ?6 



170 



Q B 



S'eo 



etfo 



e$ej7? 



5-a>|) 



2>sr^S> 



^i 






V 



ITS 



c& 



S5o S) 



si 3 



S* "S 



3 



'Modern Fiction 5 e^ ai-gcSofif* 
'Look with in, and life, it seems is very far 
from being like this '^^ ^^^ IbgEJVy&sptfo 
'Modern Fiction' - Essay b> Virginia Woolf, 
Collected Ei \v 3 by Virginia Woolf - volume 
11 Page No 106 



J74 

iS 



08* 

VI 



oL o 

'Stream of Consciousness 1 es$ d?oA5. 



DDdSbS) 



'Principles of Psychology' 



"Stream of consciousness' 



'Stream of consciousness is a muddle headed 
phrase Its not a stream Its a pool, a sea, an 
ocean It hab depth and greater depth and \\hen 
you ttunk you have reached its bottom, there j.g 



176 



nothing here and when you give yourself upto one 
current, you are suddenly possessed by another " 4 



a L 

ob ^&^bo(^^ 1941 



1947 



'Stream of conscious' 



"soo 



c3) 
|jS|8dioSo e 



VII 



5 From * A Reader's Guide to Great Twentieth Cen- 
tury English Novels' by Fedrick R Karl and Maga- 
laner Page No 8 "As a social and moral docu- 
ment as well as a contained artform, the novel 
from Cervantes' 'DON QUIXOTE" through 
Joyce's 'ULYSSES' has responded more quickly 
and fully to new ideas than any other literary 
genre Accordingly the 20th century novel 
following the rapid introductions of new modes 
of thoughts in psychology, natural science and 
sociology has reacted boldly to absorb and 
transiorm this material into literary communi- 
cati ;ns 



177 



jtrK 



o &o&>o<2> 



25 



Sgg^to s^^o" QQflX 
12) 



178 



VIII 

tftfoa^ 



179 






sj"gaSoS*a L 



J' 8 



180 



05 



a*fc> ^Portrait of an Artist as an young 
man 



"The artist like God of creation remains within 
or behind, or loovc his handiwork, Invisible refi- 
ned out of existence, indifferent paring his fin- 
gernails" 



181 
IX 



2 
8 
4 
6 



(Interior monologue) 



182 



"60^ 



^^500 



Sp"SS~8^"n 



3^3^53 SP^ si X 






tf!) ' 



e5& - 

CD 



/Objective Presentation of subjec- 
tivity) 



^>o"& a,/ S'^ci "lojjJorp S^^^) 55 SP, ^ 



185 



"5)8 > I" 

ol rJ 



186 



) L_ CO 

1940 



^6 S 



o 

co 

^s 
&' 



8 M The Problem of form for Stream of Con- 
sciousneoS novelist is the Problem of how order 
is unposed on disorder" Robert Humphrey 
Stream of Consciousness in Modern Novel 



187 



^g [jSsSoQ 



d& ' 



estf&c&go* 



18S 



6 

7 



Robert Humphrey Stream. of Consciousness in. 
Modern Novel 



CO 



'revolut on' 

rum, 



national calamity, 



revolution 

[K2ron ^s ^do^b American College 
Dictionary,! A Complete overthrow of an established 
government or political system, (as the English 
revolution (1688), American revolution (1715J, the 
French revolution (1789), or the Chinese revolution 
('911), the Russian revolution (^1917) 2 A Complete 
or marked Change in something 



&o<2> Sip^ SSSsspir' 'Human revolution' 



Anthropologists 



53^ 






i 

L. ^ 



ifl 

, Soo 3* tfS> 






^ (jeseo 

estfo ^^^^ cr-Sofcrf 



es 

" x 6^ i 
o L 



)2^0 3 






^S), ^ 



c, l 

loS^ Sj 



tftfoootfo 



102 



1946 &o 1948 



s o a 



,- 





Stf&ea 

5*00 



1955 
AS ' 



co u ^- 



1962-64 



188 



SSji c^2 
<?!0e 

s o 



1956 < 



*Let us play the Indian game Let us split* 

1967 8 



. 1969 

, 1 1970 



13) 



194 es&l&S' 8e,*o ^p 

19YO 3> 



1970 



,^ 

CO (p 

^^oS 



10 



7, 8 e^coo^ aroij'cxo Sfl 



1970 



^ 



Vs ^=063^ STcpeo SXP^O 






&&&* 

C3 O 



g^ "lojjj 



3 1947 



3#"o<3* 



195 



196 

5 



-^. ?) &5o 0*620 t;o 310 






_ & 



3 ao do o<3 



15)70 



, 1971 t> 
(1977 



S) tf roofiT 8 



S 3 



Seo 838A3 



1970) 



198 



?o 



. 



?oQn 



(1975) 



(1974), 



(1973), 



197S 



Sip, 



eS 






tf&esoS* |jtert5o&eo 



o a) 



coo 



200 

S, 



1970 



Folk simplicity 



tfrfo 



efs 



5sSdDo 



(1980 



__ Q 



202 



empirical problem &o<5 



?o- 



53* & 

?sSacx)^ 65^ 



; & 



o 

9 



SOS 



1970-1980 



^030 






I 



1-8-1981 



^0^6 S"o)(5 '^ 






206 



modern es^ s 

CD 

Seu&^a (aoo^) = Coining 3So, ^X 
65^0 "Sod: EpQ^on 8 3^3 *^tf>^o' S^<3 [S *" 1500 



19 



1 3 8* lieriSa) SdSsy 5J"SS^S Ss^^o (60^0-^0 = 



206 



5,05 



SoS c6o[j5 



CPU " 



) 






aoon 



207 



io 



(1886j 

Ac3u 



0*83 



208 



Iambus 



fs [no<S^o 






(1880) S'tfESPe.**, ^Sgoo2j 3 d'o S5^5 



0X^0 



rSojjSo-dSi 
si S 



sSQ^ofi 'S^gaoetyJ sria^o ^1892) 



14) 



10 



asS tftfoaieo c6\2i 



oXgo 
18, 19 5 

7i a* 



(1387) 

^ ^ di'io, ^ 

Tears of the 



Muses' So si3 



(1839) 

p?^o s5a 

2J S3 



"6c& 



Tennyson 6'Oc^ 'Love 
thou thy land* es 



- >j o- G "3TP 



Q - 



(5) 



atf, 



(6) 



(9) 



spfl"S) 



- (1) 



Q 2) - * 



si & 



214 

(10) 3& 



sios- 



CO SSXJPP 



(11) 



S&tfj&eo (13) 
o, 1 
(H) 



^^ (1) 

(1 ve drami) i.tSS) <9^^^ (2) 59^7? 2^0, SsSoo 
(S) c3fc!tf88o, ^o*^o oe^ e.S' 



(5) 



tftftfrv 



215 



c1 300 Son v 

CO J CO <- CO ofc* CO 



(6) 



55 ^efdoeSg' &Cb^&a S:o^ |)SSa&<S n fit) 



SSo&^tfeso 



dfia^S) 



* -p 



216 



OCX)/ 



(1) 






(2) f*^ 



eafi tftfsp 



217 



S'o'B fe^Sij- SpdooScp, spaSg'o^, Sftfe,^, ?5sSe>ofr 



^c^ rT^ap"?j-3 "5o& cSSco 
or? LaS^fi^^ (1) 



(cone pt) 



(hehivioursj r^, ^ jo si 



218 



$>oiT> d^SPc^^tf) 'Qualities have been chara 
cterized'^^ si 3 (2) tftS:>oD$oOr33j i 3*' OjJra S 



lSc[jCc5 B dio 



6an 



219 



20 



Scon 55 



220 



o 

in^cxo "S^ 



a 
^ Dictionary of Literary Terms 

by Harry Shaw 

8 Act cf Creativity 

by Arthur Koestler 

4 



) 



fi) 



^^) (content), ^io (form) 



a) 

o" 






by. Sjofl 



oo 

93 






2_oi, 3 -yj, 



S*3?tfj r 3cS$33&*& 



^ osB 

CX. 



sponta- 
neous r^ ^^^CLbcST 8 g^flS J^^o ' " 

e) 

sjpod3 ftStfj 



instant 



. 



|o S^b w^ 



J 

.wufr? ivO'^J ' 

n j o u 



224 



poet hero 



^00 



sSSdb} 



57^ ^ 



5F>6 



eo co 



226 

* " 



realisation 



>v 

ft) 



f6o[SS3-JQo 



"3 



ibi ^bea 
, Sol", 



o. 



iSSt^pr^o "ifioSi* 53)^^ ftio57')e3o ) 



228 



a* 



SJ<3 ,&> | 



1965 

<SrKo3D6" 



"0^^006 



trend 



Socr, Popular, popularity ^o? sSpd>^ ^a 
Popularism r? 



70 m m 3tf 3or^ 5?^ g"a2)o)ofl 






Popularity a &^c S^ 

o 50^:5- 



Searfb 



2SO 



Popular ^ -Spd) T Rev Thomas Davidson 
Chamber^ Twentieth Century $&od$ -St 

pertaining ^o the people, enjoying the favour of the 

f 

people t prevailing among the people, easily under 

n 

n r * i 
stood, inferior w ftstfo SJrsofi o"8) |j6e3co cojSis 



410 

CO 



PHILLIPPE PETIT 



Sb - The 
most complete man of his age' & r3 



281 



cS tftfcxr- 000- tffl^ *grf2$o, 



^30 



tfosootfo " 



L. 

K 

e> 



232 



o<3 1981 



1607 



. 812 



33 

(New Testament) 



*9<5S'!bo(3 



3T> B 



cfi 



SsScx> 



Popular "as 



upeSj 19SO ? 



, (3 



CO 

?vS5o 



o 

18 



influerce 



295 



ss-tf, 



SiS 



^Propaganda can make any 
thing popular Even death" 



-L'c S3 a- 



o-ff acS" 



n 

53=^02, ^r^to o- 



cCoesSSr'ctbex) 
Jo&e? gTJjo 



237 



2,3" 



Popular 



Popularity^) Sp^dou^ aa^SdJesrSfi, 53^ 



238 



o*^ Obscenity 



j^S) *Devme comedy' d^d) a.S' r 
Francesca ^"6 !>cSfio& Paolo S 



5^8 



)^as ^sS 



Francesca 



Obscenity 



&B so called 

oa 

popular " 






^coofi 



wo 



popular s*s6^s5oo"S O^CP unpopular 

J^^ ^J^^J&> ^o^^ Sp$)go^ Parti 
n* w^^-tD^Sj^o popular 



o& Arnold Kettle oxer* 
"1 think it essential co insist that a satisfactory use 
of the word 'popular' cannot permit of its identifi- 
cation with Circulation'* (Dickens and popular tradi- 
tion) 



D so S 



sr3- 



g'o'S 



. _,^ 
fl OJ 



3R> 



241 



Soofi 



16) 



242 



popularity, utipopulatity rt* 



popular 



a T 



S-a.g' tricky orgurnent 



o 
xo 



fiDool^^^O 



33(055)3^ e3^^S$o6^ ^ej-^ (f^oajtf 



244 



Fighting 



Popularity ^5oD Bertolt Brecht 



Popular means intelligible to the broad misses, 
taking over their own forms of expression and enri- 
ching them, (by adopting and consolidating the r 
stand point) representing the most progressive section 
of the people in such a way that it can take over 
the leadership